In the times of European colonization, the Spice Islands were a hot spot of trade. The small archipelago is found surrounded by the Philippines to the North, Indonesia to the West, Papua-New Guinea to the East, and Australia to the South. The islands are protected by reefs and steep, rocky coastlines, but their soils produced a wealth of spices, mainly nutmeg. In the Sixteenth Century, European nations were pointed in the direction of these islands by traders near India. Portugal, Spain, Holland, and Britain were the major countries pushing to find the source of the spices, which would reduce their cost and increase their profits, if the ships could survive the journey in between monsoons, hurricanes, and a murderous reef protecting the shoreline.
Nathaniel’s Nutmeg took a strong focus in the English accounts of the period, but also provided a lot of Dutch perspective as well. These were the two main forces battling for control of the small islands. Stories in letters from the time and company records were used to research and piece together the perilous adventures the seamen made. While both sides were apt to brutality, this account puts the brunt of accusation on the Dutch, who even forced false confessions of an English uprising through relentless torture in Amboyna.
The book’s namesake, Nathaniel Courthope, a British subject, held control of the island, Run. For over four years, his forces starved as the nearby islands were controlled by the enemy Dutch forces. With three ships left in the harbor, guns unloaded to fortify the island, two sailed away to secure provisions and were captured by the Dutch. Nathaniel was trapped. He attempted to sneak over to a nearby island to rally some troops and he was ambushed in the middle of the night in his small boat, never to be seen again. The handful of British men left on Run gave up the island to the Dutch unopposed.
Much of the world’s history has been involved in the tale of these small islands. The book delved into the stories of adventures to find the fabled shortcuts to the islands, the Northeast Passage and Northwest Passage. It told the story of the creation of the East India Trading Company, and the Dutch East India Trading Company, better known as the Seventeen. It also told of how the Dutch and British came to a final agreement to settle ownership of the spice laden island of Run. British forces captured New Amsterdam in the late Seventeenth Century, and both sides agreed to hold the respective colonies they acquired and to give up claim for the lost land in the Treaty of Breda. This gave the English full sovereignty of New Amsterdam, which they quickly renamed New York and the rest is history.
The book was well researched and told of many aspects of the adventures seeking fortune in the spice trade. With over two hundred years of stories, it was at times difficult to follow all of the names of the merchants and captains, along with the names of the distant islands, some now so small and insignificant they are hardly mentioned on maps. Even so, I really enjoyed learning about this subject and the book was a good source for that.